The Journal of Anesthesia is the official journal of the Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists. This journal publishes original articles, review articles, special articles, clinical reports, short communications, letters to the editor, and book and multimedia reviews. The editors welcome the submission of manuscripts devoted to anesthesia and related topics from any country of the world. Membership in the Society is not a prerequisite. To our readers,the Journal of Anesthesia (JA) welcomes case reports that show unique cases in perioperative medicine, intensive care, emergency medicine, and pain management. However, JA rarely accepts case reports for publication; their acceptance rate may be less than 5%. Please note that case reports should present important educational issues for JA readers. Even if a case is clinically challenging but does not contain any novel learning points, it will not be publishable in JA. Therefore, please consider that most case reports JA receives will be recommended to transfer to JA Clinical Reports.